The Watchers

Ancient Ref. to the Watchers - Scholarly Research Papers

On the Origin of Watchers: A Comparative Study on the Antediluvian Wisdom in Mesopotamian and Jewish Traditions 

- by Amar Annus

This article (link below) contends that the origins of the Watchers can be traced back to Mesopotamian mythology, specifically the antediluvian sages known as apkallus. The argument suggests that the Watchers and their giant offspring's mythology evolved from inverted interpretations of various Mesopotamian myths and beliefs surrounding apkallus. Within certain layers of Mesopotamian mythology and ritual practices, these sages were already perceived as potentially dangerous and malevolent entities, providing a connection to the Jewish authors counter narrative. 

Additionally, the apkallus were closely associated with Mesopotamian demonology, occasionally being viewed as malevolent beings with the ability to practice witchcraft. This underscores that the depiction of antediluvian beings as wicked figures in Jewish sources wasn't solely a reversal of Mesopotamian traditions by Jewish scholars; rather, it drew, in part, from pre-existing trends in Mesopotamian demonology. 

In this article we findthe term 'Watchers' used in various ancient Mesopotamian regions, such as;

" Figurines of apkallus were buried in boxes as foundation deposits in Mesopotamian buildings in order to avert evil from the house. The term massar, ‘watchers’, is used of these sets of gurines in Akkadian incantations according to ritual texts. This appellation matches the Aramaic term yryn, ‘the wakeful ones’, for both good angels and the Watchers"  - p. 283


Study this report at:

Origin of Watchers by Amar Annus on

Annus, A. (2010). On the Origin of Watchers: 

A Comparative Study of the Antediluvian Wisdom in Mesopotamian and Jewish Traditions. 

Journal for the Study of the Pseudepigrapha, 19(4), 277-320.